In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iran Neuropsychology Association

Document Type : Original article


1 Postdoctoral researcher in clinical neuropsychology, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Psychology, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Master of Psychology, Payam Noor University, Bonab, Iran


Aim: The aim of this study was to determining the net effect and combined effect of two Mindful Breath awareness and Muscle Relaxation (MBMR) and Cranio-Electro Stimulation (CES) techniques on improving the sleep quality of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: The present study is a randomized, three-group, double-blind, clinical trial of mixed inter-intra-subject design. The sample of the study included 30 patients with type 2 diabetes who were purposefully selected from Bonab Diabetes Association and were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 people of MBMR, CES, and MBMR+CES and in 10 single sessions, they received their group related interventions. Patients sleep quality were evaluated in three stages: pre-test, post-test, and one-month follow-up, with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The collected data were analyzed by SPANOVA test, analysis of covariance and Bonferroni's post hoc test. Results: According to the results, all three interventions used were effective in reducing sleep problems over time. The most immediate effect occurred with the lowest stability for MBMR treatment, and the highest effect and stability of the effect occurred for MBMR+CES combined therapy. Conclusion: Therefore, the study found the combined application of two techniques, MBMR and CES (20 minutes, 100 µA and 0.5 Hz), to be effective and safe for rapid and stable sleep quality improvement in patients with type 2 diabetes.


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