تأثیر مشاهده و تصویرسازی عمل بر سرکوب ریتم میو در پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی. تهران. ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکترای کنترل حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران. تهران. ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: هدف از اجرای پژوهش حاضر، تعیین تأثیر مشاهده و تصویرسازی پرتاب آزاد بسکتبال بر واکنش نورون‌های آینه­ای بود. روش: 10 دانشجوی پسر مبتدی (میانگین سنی؛ 5/1 ±2/23 سال) به‌صورت داوطلبانه در این تحقیق شرکت کردند. ترتیب مشاهده­ و تصویرسازی به‌صورت موازنه متقابل کنترل شد. امواج مغزی شرکت­کنندگان در چهار حالت استراحت با چشمان باز، بسته، مشاهده­ و تصویرسازی پرتاب آزاد به‌صورت بیرونی توسط دستگاه الکتروانسفالوگرافی ثبت گردید. سرکوب ریتم میو به‌صورت نسبت توان موج آلفا در حالت مشاهده و تصویرسازی به توان موج آلفا در حالت استراحت با چشمان باز و بسته محاسبه شد. یافته­ها: نتایج آزمون تحلیل واریانس درون­گروهی 3×2 (شرایط آزمون: مشاهده و تصویرسازی؛ منطقه عصبی: 3C، 4C، Cz) در دو حالت استراحت با چشمان باز و بسته نشان می­دهند که اثر اصلی شرایط آزمون معنادار است (01/0 ≥ P)، به­گونه­ای که بین سرکوب ریتم میو در دو حالت مشاهده و تصویرسازی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. به‌عبارت‌دیگر، ریتم میو در حالت مشاهده نسبت به تصویرسازی به‌طور معناداری بیشتر سرکوب شده است (01/0 ≥ P)، اما اثر اصلی منطقه عصبی و تعامل آن­ها معنادار نبود. نتیجه­گیری: نتایج تحقیق پیشنهاد می­کنند که سرکوب بیشتر ریتم میو در حالت مشاهده­ نسبت به تصویرسازی نشان­دهنده­ی واکنش بیشتر نورون‌های آینه­ای به مشاهده­ی عمل است. لذا به نظر می­رسد مشاهده نسبت به تصویرسازی راهبرد مؤثرتری در فرایند آموزش است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Action Observation and Motor Imagery on Mu Rhythm Suppression in Basketball Free Throw Shot

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzaneh Hatami 1
  • Farshid Tahmasbi 1
  • Elham Hatami Shahmir 2
1 Assistant Professor, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
2 PhD student in Motor control, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The purpose of present study was to examine the effects of action observation and motor imagery on mu rhythm suppression in basketball free throw shot. Method: 10 novice male students (mean age: 23.2±1.5 years) voluntarily participated in this study. The observation and imagery’ order was counterbalanced. Participants’ Brain Waves were recorded by electroencephalograph in four conditions, open and closed eye resting, observing and imagery of free throw shot in external perspective. Mu rhythm Suppression was calculated as a ratio of the alpha power during observation and imagery relative to the alpha power in the baseline conditions (open and closed eyes rest). Findings: Results of ANOVA (2×3) with the within-subject factors of condition (Observation, Imagery) and brain area (C3,CZ,C4) relative to the resting period with open and closed eyes showed that only the main effect of the condition were significant (P ≥0.01), so that, there were significant differences between mu rhythm suppression in observation and imagery conditions. In other words, mu rhythm in observation condition was more significantly suppressed compared to the imagery condition (P ≥0.01), but the main effect of brain area and the interaction of both variables were not significant. Conclusion: Results of present study suggest that more mu rhythm suppression in action observation compared to imagery condition reflects more reactivity of mirror neurons to action observation. It appears that observation is more effective strategy in educational situation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mirror Neuron System
  • Motor Imagery
  • Action Observation
  • Mu Rhythm
  • Basketball Free Throw Shot
علی­پور، ا.؛ آگاه هریس، م (1386). «بررسی قابلیت اعتماد و اعتبار پرسشنامه دست­برتری ادینبورگ در ایران». مجله علوم شناختی، دوره ششم، شماره 22: 133-117

 

Alves, N.T., Fukusima, S.S. & Aznar-Casanova, J.A. (2008). "Models of brain asymmetry in emotional processing". Psychology & Neuroscience, 1(1), 63.

 

Avenanti, A., Candidi, M. & Urgesi, C. (2013). "Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence". Front Hum Neurosci 2013 May; 7, 185(2,906).

 

Ayres, J., Hopf, T. & Edwards, P.A. (1999). "Vividness and control: factors in the effectiveness of performance visualization"? Communication Education, 48(4), 287-293

 

Bernier, R., Dawson, G., Webb, S. & Murias, M. (2007). "EEG mu rhythm and imitation impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder". Brain and cognition, 64(3), 228-237.

 

Braadbaart, L., Williams, J.H. & Waiter, G.D. (2013). "Do mirror neuron areas mediate mu rhythm suppression during imitation and action observation"? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89(1), 99-105.

 

Cannon, E.N., Yoo, K.H., Vanderwert, R.E., Ferrari, P.F., Woodward, A.L. & Fox, N.A. (2014). "Action experience, more than observation, influences mu rhythm desynchronization". PLoS One, 9(3), e92002.

 

Cheng, Y., Lee, P.L., Yang, C.Y., Lin, C.P., Hung, D. & Decety, J. (2008). "Gender differences in the mu rhythm of the human mirror-neuron system". PLoS One, 3(5), e2113.

 

Edwards, W.H. (2010). Motor learning and control: from theory to practice. 1th Ed: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

 

Eaves, D.L., Riach, M., Holmes, P.S. & Wright, D.J. (2016). "Motor imagery during action observation: A brief review of evidence, theory and future research opportunities". Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10.

 

Filimon, F., Nelson, J.D., Hagler, D.J. & Sereno, M.I. (2007). "Human cortical representations for reaching: mirror neurons for execution, observation, and imagery". Neuroimage, 37(4), 1315-1328.

 

Francuz, P. & Zapała, D. (2011). "The suppression of the μ rhythm during the creation of imagery representation of movement". Neuroscience letters, 495(1), 39-43.

 

Gonzalez-Rosa, J.J., Natali, F., Tettamanti, A., Cursi, M., Velikova, S., Comi, G. ... & Leocani, L. (2015). "Action observation and motor imagery in performance of complex movements: evidence from EEG and kinematics analysis". Behavioural brain research, 281, 290-300.

 

Grush, R. (2004). "The emulation theory of representation: Motor control, imagery, and perception". Behavioral and brain sciences, 27(03), 377-396.

 

Hobson, H.M. & Bishop, D.V. (2016). "Mu suppression–A good measure of the human mirror Hickok, G. (2009). The functional neuroanatomy of language". Physics of life reviews, 6(3), 121-143.

 

Holmes, P. & Calmels, C. (2008). "A neuroscientific review of imagery and observation use in sport". Journal of motor behavior, 40(5), 433-445.

 

Jeannerod, M. (1994). "The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery". Behavioral and Brain sciences, 17(02), 187-202.

Jeannerod, M. (2001). "Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition". Neuroimage, 14(1), S103-S109.

 

Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J.C. & Rizzolatti, G. (2005). "Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system". PLoS Biol, 3(3), e79.

 

Kihlstrom, J.F., Glisky, M.L., Peterson, M.A. & Harvey, E.M. (1991). "Vividness and control of mental imagery: A psychometric analysis". Journal of Mental Imagery.

 

Kim, T.H. & Cruz, A. (2011). "Differences in brain activation during motor imagery and action observation of golf putting". Scientific Research and Essays, 6(15), 3132-3138.

 

Kim, J. & Kim, S. (2016). "The effects of visual stimuli on EEG mu rhythms in healthy adults". Journal of physical therapy science, 28(6), 1748-1752.

 

Kim, J.Y., Park, J.W. & Kim, S.Y. (2016). "EEG Mu Rhythms During Action Observation Are Modulated By Emotional Valence". Acta Neuropsychologica, 14(2), 131-140.

 

Lapenta, O.M. & Boggio, P.S. (2014). "Motor network activation during human action observation and imagery: Mu rhythm EEG evidence on typical and atypical neurodevelopment". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(7), 759-766.

Lorey, B., Naumann, T., Pilgramm, S., Petermann, C., Bischoff, M., Zentgraf, K. ... & Munzert, J. (2013). "How equivalent are the action execution, imagery, and observation of intransitive movements? Revisiting the concept of somatotopy during action simulation". Brain and cognition, 81(1), 139-150.

 

Magill, R.A. (2011). Motor learning and control. Concepts and Applications, 7th. Ed: New York; McGraw-Hill.

 

Michelon, P., Vettel, J.M. & Zacks, J.M. (2006). "Lateral somatotopic organization during imagined and prepared movements". Journal of neurophysiology, 95(2), 811-822.

 

Muthukumaraswamy, S.D. & Johnson, B.W. (2004). "Changes in rolandic mu rhythm during observation of a precision grip". Psychophysiology, 41(1), 152-156.

 

Muthukumaraswamy, S.D., Johnson, B.W. & McNair, N.A. (2004). "Mu rhythm modulation during observation of an object-directed grasp". Cognitive Brain Research, 19(2), 195-201.

 

Oberman, L.M., McCleery, J.P., Ramachandran, V.S. & Pineda, J.A. (2007). "EEG evidence for mirror neuron activity during the observation of human and robot actions: Toward an analysis of the human qualities of interactive robots". Neurocomputing, 70(13), 2194-2203.

 

Oberman, L.M., Hubbard, E.M., McCleery, J.P., Altschuler, E.L., Ramachandran, V.S. & Pineda, J.A. (2005). "EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders". Cognitive brain research, 24(2), 190-198.

 

Pfurtscheller, G., Neuper, C., Andrew, C. & Edlinger, G. (1997). "Foot and hand area mu rhythms". International Journal of Psychophysiology, 26(1), 121-135.

 

Pineda, J.A. (2005). "The functional significance of mu rhythms: translating “seeing” and “hearing” into “doing”". Brain Research Reviews, 50(1), 57-68.

 

Proverbio, A.M. (2012). "Tool perception suppresses 10–12Hz μ rhythm of EEG over the somatosensory area". Biological psychology, 91(1), 1-7.

 

Raymaekers, R., Wiersema, J.R. & Roeyers, H. (2009). "EEG study of the mirror neuron system in children with high functioning autism". Brain research, 1304, 113-121.

 

Rizzolatti, G. (2005). "The mirror neuron system and its function in humans". Anatomy and embryology, 210(5-6), 419-421.

 

Rizzolatti, G. & Craighero, L. (2004). "The mirror-neuron system". Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 27, 169-192.

 

Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L. & Gallese, V. (2001). "Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action". Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(9), 661-670.

Roosink, M. & Zijdewind, I. (2010). "Corticospinal excitability during observation and imagery of simple and complex hand tasks: implications for motor rehabilitation". Behavioural brain research, 213(1), 35-41.

 

Ruther, N.N., Brown, E.C., Klepp, A. & Bellebaum, C. (2014). "Observed manipulation of novel tools leads to mu rhythm suppression over sensory-motor cortices". Behavioural brain research, 261, 328-335.

Williams, S.E. & Cumming, J. (2011). "Measuring athlete imagery ability: the sport imagery ability questionnaire". Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(3), 416-440.

 

Williams, S.E., Cumming, J., Ntoumanis, N., Nordin-Bates, S.M., Ramsey, R. & Hall, C. (2012). "Further validation and development of the movement imagery questionnaire". Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34(5), 621-646.