پیش‌بینی راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان با استفاده از انعطاف‌پذیری ذهن، بازداری و توجه پیوسته در نوجوانان دختر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه خلیج‌فارس. بوشهر. ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی عمومی، دانشگاه خلیج‌فارس. بوشهر. ایران.

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی عمومی، دانشگاه خلیج‌فارس. بوشهر. ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: هدف از پژوهش حاضر تعیین نقش کارکردهای اجرایی (انعطاف‌پذیری ذهن، بازداری و توجه پیوسته) در پیش­بینی راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان در نوجوانان دختر است. روش: جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر کلیه دانش­آموزان دختر متوسطه شهرستان خورموج هستند که در سال 94 – 95 تحصیل کرده‌اند. نمونه پژوهش شامل 117 نوجوان دختر مقطع متوسطه دوم است که با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای انتخاب شده‌اند. ابزارهای پژوهش مقیاس راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان، نرم­افزارهای ویسکانسین، استروپ و عملکرد پیوسته می‌باشند. داده­های پژوهش با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. یافته‌ها: نتایج تحلیل نشان داد که انعطاف‌پذیری و بازداری پیش­بینی کننده سرزنش خود؛ انعطاف‌پذیری، بازداری و توجه پیوسته پیش­بینی کننده نشخوارگری؛ انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و بازداری شناختی پیش­بینی کننده راهبرد تمرکز مجدد مثبت؛ انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و توجه پیوسته، پیش­بینی کننده ارزیابی مجدد و توجه پیوسته و بازداری پیش­بینی کننده توسعه دیدگاه بوده است. همچنین بازداری شناختی توانسته است که میزان فاجعه سازی را در نوجوانان گروه نمونه پیش­بینی کند. نتیجه­گیری: این نتایج رهنمودهایی به‌منظور بهبود راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان با استفاده از کارکردهای اجرایی را ارائه می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Predict Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Using the Flexibility of Mind, Retention and Continuous Performance in Adolescents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Souran Rajabi 1
  • Mohsen Nazarpour 2
  • Fatemeh Tabnak 3
1 Assosiate Professor of Psychology, Khalij Fars University, Boushehr, Iran.
2 M.A in General Psychology, Khalij Fars University, Boushehr, Iran.
3 M.A Student of General Psychology, Khalij Fars University, Boushehr, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The aim of this study is to survey of the role of excecutive function (cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, Continuous attention) on cognitive emotion regulation in Girl teens. Methods: The statistical population of this research is all students of high school students in Khormoj city who have been educated in 95-95 years. The sample consists of 117 adolescent secondary school students who were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling The research tools are the scale of emotional cognitive regulation strategies, Wisconsin software, Stroop and continuous performance. The data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Findings: The results of the analysis showed that cognitive flexibility and inhibition can predict self-blame, flexibility, inhibition, and continuous attention; predictive of rumination; cognitive flexibility and cognitive restraint predictive positive retention strategies; cognitive flexibility and continuous attention Forecasting reassessment and continuous attention and anticipatory deterrence has been the development of perspective. Also, cognitive impairment has been able to predict the extent of disaster in teenagers in the sample group. Conclusion: These results provide guidelines for improving cognitive-emotional regulation strategies using executive functions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive Flexibility
  • Cognitive Inhibition
  • Continuous Attention
  • Cognitive Emotion Regulation
آجیل­چی، ب.؛ احدی، ح.؛ نجاتی، و.؛ دلاور، ع (1392). «کارکردهای اجرایی در افراد افسرده و غیر افسرده». مجله روانشناسی بالینی، 5 (2)، 88-77.

 

حسنی، ج (1389). «خصوصیات روان‌سنجی پرسشنامه تنظیم شناختی هیجان». مجله روانشناسی بالینی، 3، 73-83.

 

حسینی، ف. س.؛ امیدوار، ی.؛ عباسی، ن (1396). «نقش کارکردهای اجرایی و افکار خودآیند منفی در تبیین دشواری در تنظیم هیجان نوجوانان». فصلنامه مطالعات روانشناسی بالینی، 7 (26)، 11-83.

 

Ahmed, Bittencourt-Hewitt & Sebastian. (2015). "Neurocognitive Bases of Emotion Regulation Development in Adolescence". Dev Cogn Neurosci, 11-25.

 

Aker, M., Harmer, C. & Landro, N.L. (2014). "More rumination and less effective emotion regulation in previously depressed women with preserved executive functions". BMC Psychiatry, 14:334

 

Blakemore, S.J. & Mills, K.L. (2014). "Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing"? Annual review of psychology65, 187-207.

 

Boden, M.T., Westermann, S., McRae, K., Kuo, J., Alvarez, J., Kulkarni, M.R., Gross, J.L. & et al. (2013). "Emotion regulation and posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective investigation". J Soc Clin Psychol; 32(3): 296-314.

Bruggink, A., Huisman, S., Vuijk, R., Kraaij, V. & Garnefski, N. (2016). "Cognitive emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorder". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders22, 34-44.

 

Casey, B.J., Duhoux, S. & Cohen, M.M. (2010). "Adolescence: what do transmission, transition, and translation have to do with it"? Neuron67(5), 749-760.

 

Chan, R.C.K., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T. & Chen, E.Y.H. (2008). "Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues". Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23(2), 201-216.

 

Chan, R.C., Chen, E.Y. & Law, C.W. (2006). "Specific executive dysfunction in patients with first-episode medication-naive schizophrenia". Schizophrenia research82(1), 51-64.

Connolly, S.L., Wagner, C.A., Shapero, B.G., Pendergast, L.L., Abramson, L.Y. & Alloy, L.B. (2014). "Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents". Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry45(1), 46-56.

 

Cromheeke, S. & Mueller, S.C. (2014). "Probing emotional influences on cognitive control: an ALE meta-analysis of cognition emotion interactions". Brain Structure and Function; 219, 995-1008.

 

Davis, R.N. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). "Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminatores". Cognitive therapy and research, 24(6), 699-711.

 

Dickstein, D.P., Axelson, D., Weissman, A.B., Yen, S., Hunt, J.I., Goldstein, B.I. & Frazier, T.W. (2015). "Cognitive flexibility and performance in children and adolescents with threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder". European child & adolescent psychiatry, 1-14.

 

Dickstein, D.P., Nelson, E., McClure, E.B., Grimley, M.E., Knopf, L., Brotman, M.A., Rich, B.A., Pine, D.S. & Leibenluft, E. (2007). "Cognitive flexibility in phenotypes of pediatric bipolar disorder". Child adolesc, 46(3), 341-355

 

Dumontheil, I. (2014). "Development of abstract thinking during childhood and adolescence: The role of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex". Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 10, 57-76.

 

Falquez, R., Dinu-Biringer, R., Stopsack, M., Arens, E.A., Wick, W. & Barnow, S. (2015). "Examining cognitive emotion regulation in frontal lobe patients: The mediating role of response inhibition". NeuroRehabilitation, 37(1), 89-98.

 

Fuster, M.J. (2013). Cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Stuss DT. Knight RT. Principles of frontal function. Oxford university press, New York, 11-22.

 

Garnefski, N. & Kraaij, V. (2006) "Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: a comparative study of five specific samples". Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1659–1669.

 

Garnefski, N., Koopman, H., Kraaij, V. & Cate, R.T. (2009). "Brief report: Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological adjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease". Journal of Adolescence, 32, 449-454.

 

Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V. & Spinhoven, P.H. (2001). "Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and depression". Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311-1327.

 

Giancola, P.R. (2007). "The underlying role of aggressivity in the relation between executive functioning and alcohol consumption". Addictive behaviors32(4), 765-783.

 

Giancola, P.R., Parrott, D.J. & Roth, R.M. (2006). "The influence of difficult temperament on alcohol-related aggression: better accounted for by executive function"? Addective behavior. 31, 2169-2187.

 

Gumora, G. & Arsenio, W.F. (2002). "Emotionality, emotion regulation, and school performance in middle school children". Journal of school psychology, 40(5), 395-413.

 

Hamdan, A.C. & Pereira, A.P.A. (2009). "Avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas: considerações metodológicas". Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica, 22(3), 386-393.

 

Hilt, L.M., Hanson, J.L. & Pollak, S.D. (2011). Emotion Dysregulation. Encyclopedia of Adolescence. 3. 160-169.

 

John, O.P. & Gross, J.J. (2004). "Healthy and Unhealthy Emotion Regulation: Personality Processes, Individual Differences, and Life Span Development". Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301-1324.

 

Joormann, J. (2010). "Cognitive inhibition and emotion regulation in depression". Current Directions in Psychological Science19(3), 161-166.

 

Joormann, J. & Tanovic, E. (2015). "Cognitive vulnerability to depression: examining cognitive control and emotion regulation". Current Opinion in Psychology4, 86-92.

 

Lantrip, C., Isquith, P.K., Koven, N.S., Welsh, K. & Roth, R.M. (2015). "Executive function and emotion regulation strategy use in adolescents". Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 1-6.

 

Lee, F.S., Heimer, H., Giedd, N., Lein, E.S., Šestan, N., Weinberger, D.R. & Casey, B.J. (2014). "Adolescent mental health - Opportunity and obligation". Science, 346(6209), 547‐549.

 

Lezak, M.D. (2004). Neurological Assessment. Oxford University Press. 1-1016

 

Luciana, M. (2016). "Executive Function in Adolescence: A Commentary on Regulatory Control and Depression in Adolescents: Findings From Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Research". Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-6.

 

Lui, E. (2016). Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Cognitive Flexibility, and Depression (Master's thesis, University of Waterloo).‏‏

 

McRae, K., Jacobs, S.E., Ray, R.D., John, O.P. & Gross, J.J. (2012). "Individual differences in reappraisal ability: Links to reappraisal frequency, well-being, and cognitive control". Journal of Research in Personality46(1), 2-7.

 

Meltzer, L. & Krishnan, K. (2007). Executive function difficulties and learning disabilities: understandings and misunderstandings. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Executive function in education, from theory to practice. NewYork: The Guilford Press. P. 101.

 

Mills, F., Bartlett, T.E., Dissing-Olesen, L., Wisniewska, M.B., Kuznicki, J., Macvicar, B.A. ... & Bamji, S.X. (2014). "Cognitive flexibility and long-term depression (LTD) are impaired following β-catenin stabilization in vivo". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8631-8636.

 

Nigg, J.T. (2000). "On inhibition/ disinhibit ion in developmental psychopathology: Views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy". Psychol Bull, 126(2):220-46.

 

Ortega, L.A., Tracy, B.A., Gould, T.J. & Parikh, V. (2013). "Effects of chronic low-and high –dose nicotine on cognitive flexibility in mice". Behav Brain Res. 238.134-45.

 

Powers, A. & Casey, B.J. (2015). "The adolescent brain and the emergence and peak of psychopathology". J. Infant. Child. Adolesc. Psychother. 14(1), 3-15.

 

Riediger, M. & Klipker, K. (2014). Emotion regulation in adolescence. InHandbook of emotion regulation (pp. 187-202). Guilford Press.

 

Riglin, L., Collishaw, S., Shelton, K.H., McManus, I.C., Ng-Knight, T., Sellers, R. ... & Rice, F. (2016). "Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls". Development and psychopathology28(01), 97-109.

 

Schmeichel, B.J. & Tang, D. (2015). "Individual Differences in Executive Functioning and Their Relationship to Emotional Processes and Responses". Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2) 93–98.

 

Schmeichel, B.J. & Demaree, H.A. (2010). "Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: High capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback". Emotion, 10, 739-744.

 

Sohlberg, M.M. & Mateer, C.A. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach. Guilford Press.

 

Troy, A.S. (2012). Cognitive Reappraisal Ability As A Protective Factor: Resilience to stress across time and context. Doctoral Dissertation of Philosophy. University of Denver.

 

Van Dillen, L.F., Heslenfeld, D.J. & Koole, S.L. (2009). "Tuning down the emotional brain: An fMRI study of the effects of cognitive load on the processing of affective images". NeuroImage, 45, 1212-1219.

 

Wagner, S., Müller, C., Helmreich, I., Huss, M. & Tadić, A. (2015). "A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder". European child & adolescent psychiatry24(1), 5-19.