آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم به کودکان اختلال طیف اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران- دانشکده زبان و ادبیات

2 استاد دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی ایران- دانشکده علوم توانبخشی

3 دانشیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران- دانشکده زبان و ادبیات

چکیده

مقدمه: با افزایش آمار افرادی که هر روزه پس از بررسی های لازم در طیف اوتیسم قرار میگیرند، لزوم فراهم آوردن شرایط آموزشی در زمینه های مختلف از جمله یادگیری زبان ها نیز بیشتر احساس میشود. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، آموزش زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم به کودکان اختلال طیف اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا میباشد. روش: این مطالعه کیفی و موردی به بررسی تاثیر مداخله یا روش تدریس یک به یک رفتاری و شناختی در آموزش زبان دوم به دو زبان آموز فارسی زبان دارای تکلم میپردازد. از چهار مهارت تقلیدی_حرکتی، تکرار کردن، نامگذاری کردن، و درخواست کردن برای آموزش استفاده شد. یافته ها: در آموزش 103 مورد زبانی فقط 9 مورد شکست در دو روش آموزشی دیده شد. سام با روش مداخله رفتاری، 9 شکست ( 5 مورد در مهارت تقلیدی_حرکتی و 4 مورد در مهارت تکرار کردن ) را تجربه کرد و مانی هیچ شکستی نداشت. نتیجه گیری: با وجود تفاوت ناچیز، به نظر میرسد آموزش به روش مداخله شناختی با شکست کمتری همراه است و برای به کارگیری در زبان آموزی کودکان در طیف اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا توصیه میشود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Teaching English as a Foreign Language to High-Functioning Autistic Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Neda Khodaverdi 1
  • Hassan Ashayeri 2
  • parviz maftun 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate Teaching English as a Foreign Language/College of Foreign Languages and Literature Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Full professor/ Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate professor/ College of Foreign Languages and Literature Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: As the number of people in autism spectrum disorder is increasing every day, the need for providing possibilities with regard to various teaching arenas including language learning is more being felt. The main aim of the present study was teaching English as a foreign language to children with high-functioning autism. Method: This qualitative case study investigated the effect of behavioral and cognitive coaching on teaching English to two verbal Persian-speaking language learners. The four skills of motor-imitation, echoic, tacting, and manding were used for teaching. Findings: The results showed that out of 103 language items, nine instances of failure were reported concerning both types of interventions. Sam who was taught based on behavioral intervention experienced nine instances failure (five instances in motor-imitation and four in echoic skill) and Mani none. Conclusion: Despite the slight differences, it seems that teaching based on cognitive intervention was more successful, and it can be recommended for teaching English to high-functioning autistic learners.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Teaching a foreign language
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • high-functioning autism
  • behavioral intervention
  • cognitive intervention
احمدی، جعفر.، صفری، طیبه.، همتیان، منصوره.، و خلیلی، زهرا. (1390). بررسی شاخص های روانسنجی آزمون تشخیصی اوتیسم. مجله پژوهش های علوم شناختی و رفتاری. پاییز و زمستان، 1 (1):104 - 87

کاسه چی، مسعود.، بهنیا، فاطمه.، میزرایی، هوشنگ.، رصافیانی، مهدی.، فرضی، مرجان.، و غریب، مسعود. (1392). اعتبار، پایایی و روایی نسخه فارسی پرسش نامه غربالگری کودکان اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا 7-12 ساله. مجله علمی پژوهشی پژوهان، 12 (1): 54- 45.

Aarons, M., & Gittens, T. (1999). The handbook of autism: A guide for parents and professionals (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Alanen, R. (2003). A sociocultural approach to young language learners' belief about language learning. In P. Kalaja & M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp. 55-85). New York: Springer.

Balconi, M. (2010). Neuropsychology of Communication. Milan: Springer.

Barbera, M. L., & Rasmussen, T. (2007). The verbal behavior approach: How to teach children with autism and related disorders. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2003). Researching beliefs about SLA: A critical review. In P. Kalaja & M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp. 7-33). New York: Springer.

Bernard-Opitz, V., Ing, S., & Kong, T. Y. (2004). Comparison of behavioural and natural play interventions for young children with autism. Autism, 8(3), 319-333.

Boyd, R. D., & Corley, M. J. (2001). Outcome survey of early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism in a community setting. Autism, 5(4), 430-441.

 Chaidez, V., Hansen, R. L., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders in Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Autism, 16(4), 381-397.
Ellis, R. (2003). Designing a task-based syllabus. RELC Journal, 34(1), 64-81.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task‐based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221-246.

Francis, G. L., McMullen, V. B., Blue-Banning, M., & Haines, S. (2013). Increasing the social skills of a student with autism through a literacy-based behavioral intervention. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49 (2).

Friedman, A., & Luiselli, J. K. (2008). Excessive daytime sleep behavioral assessment and intervention in a child with autism. Behavior Modification, 32(4), 548-555.

Hayward, D., Eikeseth, S., Gale, C., & Morgan, S. (2009). Assessing progress during treatment for young children with autism receiving intensive behavioural interventions. Autism, 13(6), 613-633.

Hosenfeld, C. (2003). Evidence of emergent beliefs of a second language learner: A case study. In P. Kalaja & M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp. 37-54). New York: Springer.

Kalaja, P., & Barcelos, M. F. (Eds.). (2003). Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches. New York: Springer.

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Klintwall, L., Eldevik, S., & Eikeseth, S. (2015). Narrowing the gap: Effects of intervention on developmental trajectories in autism. Autism, 19(1), 53-63.

Kovshoff, H., Hastings, R. P., & Remington, B. (2011). Two-year outcomes for children with autism after the cessation of early intensive behavioral intervention. Behavior Modification, 35(5), 427-450.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in lnaguage teaching. New York: Oxford Univesity Press.

Lechago, S. A., & Carr, J. E. (2008). Recommendations for reporting independent variables in outcome studies of early and intensive behavioral intervention for autism. Behavior Modification, 32(4), 489-503.

Locke, J., Rotheram-Fuller, E., Xie, M., Harker, C., & Mandell, D. (2014). Correlation of cognitive and social outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder in a randomized trial of behavioral intervention. Autism, 18(4), 370-375.

Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3-9.

Luiselli, J. K., Cannon, B. O., Ellis, J. T., & Sisson, R. W. (2000). Home-based behavioral intervention for young children with autism/pervasive developmental disorder: A preliminary evaluation of outcome in relation to child age and intensity of service delivery. Autism, 4(4), 426-438.

Moore, T. R., & Symons, F. J. (2011). Adherence to treatment in a behavioral intervention curriculum for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 35(6), 570-594.

Ogilvie, G., & Dunn, W. (2010). Taking teacher education to task: Exploring the role of teacher education in promoting the utilization of task-based language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 14(2), 161-181.

Samadi, S. A., Mahmoodizadeh, A., & McConkey, R. (2012). A national study of the prevalence of autism among five-year-old children in Iran. Autism, 16(1), 5-14.

 Schlinger, H. D. (2008). The long good-bye: Why BF Skinner's Verbal Behavior is alive and well on the 50th anniversary of its publication. The Psychological Record, 58(3), 329-337.

Streubert, H .J., & Carpenter, D. R. (2007). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Willkins.

Sundberg, M. L., & Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism. Behavior Modification, 25(5), 698-724.

Turner, K. S., & Johnson, C. R. (2013). Behavioral interventions to address sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33(3), 144-152.

Wing, L. (1997). The history of ideas on autism: Legends, myths and reality. Autism, 1(1), 13-23.

Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9(1), 11-29.

 Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research design and methods (3rd ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

 

 

 

 

 

احمدی، جعفر.، صفری، طیبه.، همتیان، منصوره.، و   خلیلی، زهرا. (1390). بررسی شاخص های روانسنجی آزمون تشخیصی اوتیسم. مجله پژوهش های علوم شناختی و رفتاری. پاییز و زمستان، 1 (1):104 - 87

کاسه چی، مسعود.، بهنیا، فاطمه.، میزرایی، هوشنگ.، رصافیانی، مهدی.، فرضی، مرجان.، و غریب، مسعود. (1392). اعتبار، پایایی و روایی نسخه فارسی پرسش نامه غربالگری کودکان اوتیسم با عملکرد بالا 7-12 ساله. مجله علمی پژوهشی پژوهان، 12 (1): 54- 45.

 

Aarons, M., & Gittens, T. (1999). The handbook of autism: A guide for parents and professionals (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Alanen, R. (2003). A sociocultural approach to young language learners' belief about language learning. In P. Kalaja & M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp. 55-85). New York: Springer.

Balconi, M. (2010). Neuropsychology of Communication. Milan: Springer.

Barbera, M. L., & Rasmussen, T. (2007). The verbal behavior approach: How to teach children with autism and related disorders. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2003). Researching beliefs about SLA: A critical review. In P. Kalaja & M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp. 7-33). New York: Springer.

Bernard-Opitz, V., Ing, S., & Kong, T. Y. (2004). Comparison of behavioural and natural play interventions for young children with autism. Autism, 8(3), 319-333.

Boyd, R. D., & Corley, M. J. (2001). Outcome survey of early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism in a community setting. Autism, 5(4), 430-441.

 

 Chaidez, V., Hansen, R. L., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders in Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Autism, 16(4), 381-397.
Ellis, R. (2003). Designing a task-based syllabus. RELC Journal, 34(1), 64-81.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task‐based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 221-246.

Francis, G. L., McMullen, V. B., Blue-Banning, M., & Haines, S. (2013). Increasing the social skills of a student with autism through a literacy-based behavioral intervention. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49 (2).

Friedman, A., & Luiselli, J. K. (2008). Excessive daytime sleep behavioral assessment and intervention in a child with autism. Behavior Modification, 32(4), 548-555.

Hayward, D., Eikeseth, S., Gale, C., & Morgan, S. (2009). Assessing progress during treatment for young children with autism receiving intensive behavioural interventions. Autism, 13(6), 613-633.

Hosenfeld, C. (2003). Evidence of emergent beliefs of a second language learner: A case study. In P. Kalaja & M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New Research Approaches (pp. 37-54). New York: Springer.

Kalaja, P., & Barcelos, M. F. (Eds.). (2003). Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches. New York: Springer.

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Klintwall, L., Eldevik, S., & Eikeseth, S. (2015). Narrowing the gap: Effects of intervention on developmental trajectories in autism. Autism, 19(1), 53-63.

Kovshoff, H., Hastings, R. P., & Remington, B. (2011). Two-year outcomes for children with autism after the cessation of early intensive behavioral intervention. Behavior Modification, 35(5), 427-450.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in lnaguage teaching. New York: Oxford Univesity Press.

Lechago, S. A., & Carr, J. E. (2008). Recommendations for reporting independent variables in outcome studies of early and intensive behavioral intervention for autism. Behavior Modification, 32(4), 489-503.

Locke, J., Rotheram-Fuller, E., Xie, M., Harker, C., & Mandell, D. (2014). Correlation of cognitive and social outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder in a randomized trial of behavioral intervention. Autism, 18(4), 370-375.

Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3-9.

Luiselli, J. K., Cannon, B. O., Ellis, J. T., & Sisson, R. W. (2000). Home-based behavioral intervention for young children with autism/pervasive developmental disorder: A preliminary evaluation of outcome in relation to child age and intensity of service delivery. Autism, 4(4), 426-438.

Moore, T. R., & Symons, F. J. (2011). Adherence to treatment in a behavioral intervention curriculum for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 35(6), 570-594.

Ogilvie, G., & Dunn, W. (2010). Taking teacher education to task: Exploring the role of teacher education in promoting the utilization of task-based language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 14(2), 161-181.

Samadi, S. A., Mahmoodizadeh, A., & McConkey, R. (2012). A national study of the prevalence of autism among five-year-old children in Iran. Autism, 16(1), 5-14.

 Schlinger, H. D. (2008). The long good-bye: Why BF Skinner's Verbal Behavior is alive and well on the 50th anniversary of its publication. The Psychological Record, 58(3), 329-337.

Streubert, H .J., & Carpenter, D. R. (2007). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Willkins.

Sundberg, M. L., & Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism. Behavior Modification, 25(5), 698-724.

Turner, K. S., & Johnson, C. R. (2013). Behavioral interventions to address sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33(3), 144-152.

Wing, L. (1997). The history of ideas on autism: Legends, myths and reality. Autism, 1(1), 13-23.

Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9(1), 11-29.

 Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research design and methods (3rd ed.). London: SAGE Publications.