اثربخشی برنامه آموزشی حافظه فعال بر حافظه فعال واج‌شناختی و آگاهی واجی دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان: یک مطالعه نوروسایکولوژیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.30473/clpsy.2020.48128.1456

چکیده

مقدمه: هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثربخشی برنامه آموزشی حافظه فعال بر بهبود توانایی حافظه فعال واج‌شناختی و آگاهی واجی دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان انجام شد. روش: این پژوهش از نوع نیمه‌آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون و گروه گواه بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل تمام دانش‌آ‌موزان پایه دوم و سوم تحصیلی بود که در مراکز ناتوانی یادگیری شهر تهران تشخیص نارساخوانی را دریافت کرده بودند و نمونه پژوهش شامل 30 نفر از آنها بود که با روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب و به ‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و گواه جایگزین شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش شامل مجموعه آزمون حافظه فعال برای کودکان (گثرکول و پیکرینگ، 2001) و آزمون آگاهی واج‌شناختی (سلیمانی و دستجردی‌کاظمی، 1389) بود. گروه آزمایش 16جلسه 30-35 دقیقه‌ای آموزش حافظه فعال را دریافت کردند و گروه گواه، هیچ آموزشی را دریافت نکردند. یافته‌ها: داده های پژوهش با استفاده از روش آماری تحلیل کوواریانس (آنکوا) تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که نمرات پس‌آزمون گروه آزمایش نسبت به گروه گواه در هر دو متغیر تفاوت معناداری پیدا کرده است که نشان‌دهنده تاثیر برنامه آموزشی بر بهبود توانایی حافظه فعال واج‌شناختی و آگاهی واجی گروه آزمایش است. همچنین اندازه اثرهای به ‌دست آمده تاثیر برنامه آموزشی را به‌ خوبی تایید کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of Working Memory Educational Program on Phonological Working Memory and Phonemic Awareness in Dyslexic Students: A Neuropsychological Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Sadat Naji 1
  • Mohsen Shokoohi-Yekta 2
  • Saeid Hassanzadeh 3
1 .PhD in Educational Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of working memory educational program on enhancing Phonological working memory and phonemic awareness performance of dyslexic students. This study was Quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test. The statistical population was all the primary school students of 2 and 3 greads, with dyslexia who went to learning disorders centers in Tehran, 30 of them using convenience sampling and were assigned by random in experimental and control groups. The assessment tools included Working Memory Test Battery for Children (Gathercole & Pickering, 2001) and Phonological Awareness Test (Soleimani & Dastjerdi-Kazemi,  2010). The experimental group experienced the working memory educational program in 16 sessions, 30 to 35minutes. The obtained data were analyzed statistically by using of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results showed significant differences between experimental and control group in both dependent variables at post-test. The results showed that training of working memory educational program improved Phonological working memory and phonemic awareness performance of dyslexic students.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: working memory training
  • phonological working memory
  • phonemic awareness
  • dyslexia
ارجمندنیا، ع.ا. و شکوهی یکتا، م. (1391). بهبود حافظه فعال. تهران: انتشارات تیمورزاده-نشر طبیب.

ارجمندنیا، ع.ا. و سیف‌نراقی، م. (1388). "تاثیر راهبرد مرور ذهنی بر عملکرد حافظه فعال دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان". مجله علوم رفتاری. 3(3)، 173-178.

پیکرینگ، س. و گترکول، س. (1396). مجموعه آزمون حافظه فعال برای کودکان (حاف بک). ترجمه ارجمدنیا، ع.ا. تهران: رشد فرهنگ.

جوانمرد، غ و اسدالهی فام، ش. (1396). مقایسه کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان مبتلاء به ناتوانی یادگیری ریاضیات با کودکان دارای ناتوانی خواندن، نوشتن و عادی. فصل نامه عصب روانشناسی؛ شماره سوم، ص 50-39.

سلیمانی، ز. و دستجردی‌کاظمی، م. (1389). آزمون آگاهی واج‌شناختی. تهران: پژوهشگاه مطالعات آموزش و پرورش.

 

 

Alloway, T.P. (2011). A comparison of working memory profiles in children with ADHD and DCD. Child Neuropsychology, 21, 1-12.

Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 20-29.

Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2006). Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children: Are they separable? Child Development77(6), 1698-1716.

Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C. & Adams, A.M. (2005). "Working memory and special educational needs". Educational and Child Psychology, 22, 56-67.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5), Washington, DC; London, England.

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(10), 829-839.

Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer:

 

A new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–423.

Barnes, Z. T. (2018). Cognitive Flexibility and Working Memory's Longitudinal Prediction of Reading Achievement (Doctoral dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University).

Brandenburg J., Klesczewski J., Fischbach A., Schuchardt K., Büttner G., Hasselhorn M. (2014). Working memory in children with learning disabilities in reading versus spelling: searching for overlapping and specific cognitive factors. Learning Disability, DIO: 10.1177/0022219414521665.

Brooks, A. D., Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2011). Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: Momentary inefficiency in the phonological and orthographic loops of working memory. Developmental neuropsychology, 36(7), 847-868.

Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children's Reading Comprehension Ability: Concurrent Prediction by Working Memory, Verbal Ability, and Component Skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31-42.

Carretti, B., Borella, E., Cornoldi, C., & De Beni, R. (2009). Role of working memory in explaining the performance of individuals with specific reading comprehension difficulties: A meta-analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 246-251.

Dahlin, K. I. E. (2011). "Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs". Reading and Writing, 24(4), 479-491.

Dehn, M.J. (2008). Working memory and academic learning: assessment and intervention. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Etherton, J. L., Oberle, C. D., Rhoton, J., & Ney, A. (2018). Effects of Cogmed working memory training on cognitive performance. Psychological research,(9) 1-13.

Foy, J. G., & Mann, V. A. (2014). Adaptive cognitive training enhances executive control and visuospatial and verbal working memory in beginning readers. International Education Research, 2(2), 19-43.

Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Willis, C,. Adams, A.M. (2006). Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 7(3), 265-281.

Gathercole, S.E., Baddeley, A.D. (1993). Working memory and language. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Goswami, U. & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological skills and learning to read, Erlbaum.

Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). "Assessment of working memory in six- and seven-year old children". Educational Psychology, 92, 377–390

Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E. & Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Developmental Science, 12, F9 –F15.

Jeffries, S. & Everatt, J. (2004). Working memory: Its role in dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties. Dyslexia, 10(3), 196-214.

Kershner, J. R. (2019). Neuroscience and education: Cerebral lateralization of networks and oscillations in dyslexia. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 1-17.

Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 317–324.

Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., Westerberg, H. (2002). "Training of Working Memory in Children with ADHD". Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(6): 781-791.

Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E. & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). "Defining dyslexia, comorbidity, teachers’ knowledge of language and reading: A definition of dyslexia". Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1-14.

Melby-Lervåg, M; Redick, T. S.; Hulme, C (2016). “Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of “Far Transfer”. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 512–534.

Mezzacappa, E. & Buckner, J.C. (2010). "Working Memory Training for Children with Attention Problems or Hyperactivity: A School-Based Pilot Study". School Mental Health, 2(4), 202-208.

Moll, K., Göbel, S. M., Gooch, D., Landerl, K., & Snowling, M. J. (2016). Cognitive risk factors for specific learning disorder: Processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Journal of learning disabilities, 49(3), 272-281.

Morrison, A. & Chein, J. (2011). "Does working memory training work? The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 46 - 60.

Nevo, E., Breznitz, Z. (2011). "Assessment of working memory components at 6 years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later". Experimental Child Psychology,109, 73–90.

Normand, S., & Tannock, R. (2014). Screening for working memory deficits in the classroom: The psychometric properties of the working memory rating scale in a longitudinal school-based study. Journal of attention disorders, 18(4), 294-304.

Oconnor, B., Spencer, F.H., & Patton, W. (2003)." the role of working memory in relation to cognitive functioning in children". Paper presented in 38th APS annual conference proceeding, Perth, W.A., Australia.

Peijnenborgh, J. C., Hurks, P. M., Aldenkamp, A. P., Vles, J. S., & Hendriksen, J. G. (2016). Efficacy of working memory training in children and adolescents with learning disabilities: A review study and meta-analysis. Neuropsychological rehabilitation, 26(5-6), 645-672.

Peng P., Fuchs D. (2016). "A Meta-Analysis of working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties: is there a difference between verbal domain and numerical domain?". Learning Disabilities, 49, 3–20.

Pickering, S. J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2004). Distinctive working memory profiles in children with varying special educational needs. Educational Psychology, 24, 393–408.

Shipstead, Z., Redick, T. S. & Engle, R. W. (2010). Does working memory training generalize?. Psychologica Belgica, 50, 245–276.

Sharma, A. V. (2010). Neuroscience: Intracerebral applications of protein synthesis inhibitors eliminate neural activity. Master's thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.

Swanson, H.L. (2003). Age-related differences in learning disabled and skilled readers’ working memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85(1), 1-31.

Thorell, L. B., Lindqvist, S., Bergman, S., Bohlin, G., & Klinberg, T. (2008). Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental Science, 11(6), 969-976.

Valdois, S,. Peyrin, C,. Lassus-Sangosse, D,. Lallier, M,. Demonet, J.F. & Kandel, S. (2014). "Dyslexia in a French-Spanish bilingual girl: behavioural and neural modulations following a visual attention span intervention". Cortex, 53, 120-145.

Walda, S. A. E. Weerdenburg, M. V. Wijnants, M. L. & Bosman, A. M. T. (2014). Progress in reading and spelling of dyslexic children is not affected by executive functioning. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 12(35), 3431-3454.